Tan, C., Zhao, H. OBrien, E.J., Uddin, N., Fitzgerald, P.C., McGetrick, P.J., Kim, C.-W. (2020), ‘Extracting Mode Shapes from Drive-By Measurements to Detect Global and Local Damage in Bridges’, Structure & Infrastructure Engineering, 11th Sept.. 
Accurate vehicle configurations (vehicle speed, number of axles, and axle spacing) are commonly required in bridge health monitoring systems and are prerequisites in bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) systems. Using the ‘nothing on the road’ principle, this data is found using axle detecting sensors, usually strain gauges, placed at particular locations on the underside of the bridge. To improve axle detection in the measured signals, this paper proposes a wavelet transform and Shannon entropy with a correlation factor. The proposed approach is first verified by numerical simulation and is then tested in two field trials. The fidelity of the proposed approach is investigated including noise in the measurement, multiple presence, different vehicle velocities, different types of vehicle and in real traffic flow.


Link to full text: https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217485.